Goldmark, Peter Carl

Goldmark, Peter Carl
b. 2 December 1906 Budapest, Hungary
d. 7 December 1977 Westchester Co., New York, USA
Austro-Hungarian engineer who developed the first commercial colour television system and the long-playing record.
After education in Hungary and a period as an assistant at the Technische Hochschule, Berlin, Goldmark moved to England, where he joined Pye of Cambridge and worked on an experimental thirty-line television system using a cathode ray tube (CRT) for the display. In 1936 he moved to the USA to work at Columbia Broadcasting Laboratories. There, with monochrome television based on the CRT virtually a practical proposition, he devoted his efforts to finding a way of producing colour TV images: in 1940 he gave his first demonstration of a working system. There then followed a series of experimental field-sequential colour TV systems based on segmented red, green and blue colour wheels and drums, where the problem was to find an acceptable compromise between bandwidth, resolution, colour flicker and colour-image breakup. Eventually he arrived at a system using a colour wheel in combination with a CRT containing a panchromatic phosphor screen, with a scanned raster of 405 lines and a primary colour rate of 144 fields per second. Despite the fact that the receivers were bulky, gave relatively poor, dim pictures and used standards totally incompatible with the existing 525-line, sixty fields per second interlaced monochrome (black and white) system, in 1950 the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), anxious to encourage postwar revival of the industry, authorized the system for public broadcasting. Within eighteen months, however, bowing to pressure from the remainder of the industry, which had formed its own National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) to develop a much more satisfactory, fully compatible system based on the RCA three-gun shadowmask CRT, the FCC withdrew its approval.
While all this was going on, Goldmark had also been working on ideas for overcoming the poor reproduction, noise quality, short playing-time (about four minutes) and limited robustness and life of the long-established 78 rpm 12 in. (30 cm) diameter shellac gramophone record. The recent availability of a new, more robust, plastic material, vinyl, which had a lower surface noise, enabled him in 1948 to reduce the groove width some three times to 0.003 in. (0.0762 mm), use a more lightly loaded synthetic sapphire stylus and crystal transducer with improved performance, and reduce the turntable speed to 33 1/3 rpm, to give thirty minutes of high-quality music per side. This successful development soon led to the availability of stereophonic recordings, based on the ideas of Alan Blumlein at EMI in the 1930s.
In 1950 Goldmark became a vice-president of CBS, but he still found time to develop a scan conversion system for relaying television pictures to Earth from the Lunar Orbiter spacecraft. He also almost brought to the market a domestic electronic video recorder (EVR) system based on the thermal distortion of plastic film by separate luminance and coded colour signals, but this was overtaken by the video cassette recorder (VCR) system, which uses magnetic tape.
Principal Honours and Distinctions
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Morris N.Liebmann Award 1945. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Vladimir K. Zworykin Award 1961.
1951, with J.W.Christensen and J.J.Reeves, "Colour television. USA Standard", Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 39: 1,288 (describes the development and standards for the short-lived field-sequential colour TV standard).
1949, with R.Snepvangers and W.S.Bachman, "The Columbia long-playing microgroove recording system", Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 37:923 (outlines the invention of the long-playing record).
Further Reading
E.W.Herold, 1976, "A history of colour television displays", Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 64:1,331.

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

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  • GOLDMARK, PETER CARL — (1906–1977), U.S. television engineer. Born in Hungary, Goldmark went to the U.S. in 1933 and joined CBS as chief TV engineer in 1936, becoming president of its laboratories division in 1954. He developed systems of color television, one of which …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Goldmark, Peter Carl — born , Dec. 2, 1906, Budapest, Hung. died Dec. 7, 1977, Westchester county, N.Y., U.S. Hungarian U.S. engineer. He earned a doctorate from the University of Vienna before immigrating to the U.S. in 1933. From 1936 to 1972 he worked at the… …   Universalium

  • Goldmark, Peter Carl — (2 dic. 1906, Budapest, Hungría–7 dic. 1977, cond. de Westchester, N.Y., EE.UU.). Ingeniero húngaro estadounidense. Obtuvo un doctorado de la Universidad de Viena antes de emigrar a EE.UU. en 1933. Desde 1936 hasta 1972 trabajó en los… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Peter Carl Goldmark — Born December 2, 1906(1906 12 02) Budapest Died December 7, 1977(1977 12 07) (aged 71) Port Chester …   Wikipedia

  • Peter Carl Goldmark — (* 2. Dezember 1906 in Budapest; † 7. Dezember 1977 in Port Chester, New York) war ein in Ungarn geborener US amerikanischer Ingenieur, der den ersten erfolgreichen Farbfernseher vorführte. Als Peter Carl Goldmark 8 Jahre alt war, ließen sich… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Peter Carl Goldmark — Dans ce nom hongrois, le nom de famille, Goldmark, précède le prénom mais cet article utilise l ordre occidental où le prénom précède le nom.. Peter Carl Goldmark Naissance 2 décembre 1906 Budapest (   …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Peter Carl Goldmark — noun United States inventor (born in Hungary) who made the first TV broadcast in 1940 and invented the long playing record in 1948 and pioneered videocassette recording (1906 1977) • Syn: ↑Goldmark, ↑Peter Goldmark • Instance Hypernyms: ↑inventor …   Useful english dictionary

  • carl — carlish, adj. carlishness, n. /kahrl/, n. 1. Scot. a. a strong, robust fellow, esp. a strong manual laborer. b. a miser; an extremely thrifty person. 2. Archaic. a churl. 3. Obs. a bondman. Also, carle. [bef. 1000 (in compounds; see HOUSECARL);… …   Universalium

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  • Carl — ► (1895 1982) Compositor, director de orquesta y profesor alemán. Obras: Carmina Burana (1937), Catulli Carmina, El triunfo de Afrodita (1951) y Comoedia de Christi resurrectione (1955). * * * (as used in expressions) Andre, Carl Bach, Carl… …   Enciclopedia Universal

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